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Bardia National Park - Physical Features

Physical Features, Bardia National Park, Bardya, Nepal, Topography, Drainage, Nepal, River, Valley, Geology, Climate, Access to the park of nepal, Churai Hill, range, Highest elevation Sukramala, Manau Ghat, Karnali, Babai River, Karnali River, Orai River, Ambasa, Maan Khola, Sub Tropical, Monsoon, Kathmandu, Overland, Prithibi Highway, Mugling, Narayanghat, telephone, communication, amreni, transport, bus, private, air, nepalgunj, road, rafting, Karnali river, thakurdwara temple, rhino lodge bardia, nepal safari, wildlife

Topography and drainage
The topography of the park is quite diverse with flood plains, river valleys and gorges, and the Churia hill. The park's northern boundary is the crest of the Churia range, which is well above 1219m. The highest elevation is 1441 m at Sukramala and the lowest elevation is 152m (Manau Ghat) is the south. The southern slope of the Churia range is quite steep, falling steadily to ca 350m and merging into the flat land, below 152 m. Almost 42% of the area lies between 250-500 meters whereas about 5.4% areas lies between 750-1000 meters.

The Karnali and Babai Rivers are perennial river systems that flow through the park. The eastern branch of Karnail River forms the western boundary of the park where as Babai River drain the park in the northeastern sector. Orai River and Gumnaha Nala and Ambasa Khola drain the park area between Karnali and Babai rivers. Maan Khola, Karolia Nala and many other seasonal nasal drain the southern face of the Churia between Babai and eastern border of the park.

Geology
The dominant slope of the park is above 300 with more then 20-cm deep soil that covers almost 34% of the park area. Whereas the dominant slope of the buffer zone is below 10 with deep soil that covers ca 66% of buffer zone area. The geological formation of the Churia range is the determining factor for the soil types of the park. The Churia is of late tertiary in origin. Exposed rocks consist of fine-grained sand stone with pockets of clay, shale, conglomerate and freshwater limestone. Soils are young, shallow and subject to high rates of erosion and landslides. The Bhabar zone boulder, cobbles, gravels and course sand inter bedded with silt and clay from the Churia. Most of the park belongs to Bhabar zone. The alluvial soils in the flat low land below the Bhabar are quite deep.

Climate
Bardia National Park has a sub-tropical monsoon climate with three distinct season in the annual cycle: hot season (March-June), Monsoon (July-October) and winter (October-February). About 90% of the precipitation occur during the month of July, August and September. The absolute maximum temperature of 410C and minimum temperature of 3.10C were recorded in May 1996 and January 1987 respectively. The highest rainfall of 2798 mm and lowest rainfall of 1592 mm occurred in the year 1990 and 1992, respectively.

Access to the park
The Park is approximately 370 km by air from Kathmandu. The airport at Nepalganj, ca 85 km from park headquarters provides air transport facilities for the area. It can be approached overland from Kathmandu through Prithbi Highway (Kathmandu-Mugling), Mugling-Narayangarh Highway and East-West high (Narayangarh to Amreni). A 13 km rough road turns west from East-West highway at Amreni leading to park headquarters. Surface travel with two wheel vehicles is difficult during monsoon since no bridge exists across Orai River (ca 1 km from Amreni) and it occasionally swells high due to monsoon rain. The park is not accessible by vehicle during monsoon. Domestic elephant are the only safest mode of transport during monsoon. Telecommunication facilities are available in our lodge. One public telephone service center with ISTD communication facility is operational at Thakurdwara temple area, ca 2.5 km east from Rhino Lodge Bardia. Cyber-café is also available for e-mail and Internet in Bardia.

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